Its always worth occasionally grabbing a full run-time-profile of your game to see whats taking up all that processor power. Today I dug into it a bit with aqtime and wanted to see what was chewing up the PC the most on a (fairly) big map.

If I ignore child threads (that take a lot of the load-off in terms of route-finding and other things) and just concentrate on the main thread, I can see that 73% of a frame is in the drawing code, and 22% is processing. I suspect on crazy big maps that processing chunk goes higher, as the drawing code scales to some extent with the screen size, and a big map on a small laptop is still my target for improvement.

If I break open that 22% I get this:

SlotManager::Process is obviously the biggest problem here. Its also something that scales quite badly because on really jam-packed maps, there is a lot of slots, and for my sins, EVERY item placed down is a slot, even if its just a conveyor with one entrance and one exit… so whats going on in there…? 95% of the time happens in ProductionSlots (the rest is facilities or supply stockpiles…

…so quite a mixture here, which is a good sign really, as it shows no real obvious glaring screw ups! Because I’m really worried about maps with just a lot of conveyors on them I guess the thing I really need to look at is Processvehicle(), as the other top offenders don’t seem to be related to those theoretically simple slots…

Hmmm. so CheckExitSlotFree() is taking up a lot of time, and some digging around shows that in my short sample run I called that on average of 1,248 times per frame. Ouch. Thats a lot, but to be expected with so many slots, and them all wanting to know their immediate status. The sad thing is, this is likely to be 99.5% of the time, a lot of slots going *is the slot in front of me empty* and the answer coming back *no, just like it was the last 100 times you asked*.

There is a fundamental algorithmic screw-up here, in that polling a value, rather than being notified when it changes, is hugely inefficient. Its also incredibly reliable and fault tolerant, which is why its such a popular method… What exactly takes so long anyway in that function?

Aha… so it looks like a big chunk of the time is actually spent just notifying the popup GUI above a vehicle or a slot, what message to display which is almost *all* cases is none. This seems crazy, and clearly a target for optimization. On its own, this function is taking up a tiny part of total run-time, but a larger part of the main (blocking) thread, and certainly seems to be inefficient. What takes up most of the code? actually its the code that works out the width and height of any of the strings based on the UI font, and thus resizes that notice. Yikes, am I *really* calling that every frame?

Out of 1,992,097 calls to SetType() only 55,280 update it, so only 2.7%, but its still a lot. Inside that function we set the size and the text without even checking if its onscreen, or if we are zoomed in far enough to see it anyway. I can simply set that to be something thats done ‘lazily’ once I know we are onscreen and zoomed in…

Ok done that and…. Hahaha. That function now averages 0.0001ms vs 0.0007ms before the change. Thats a decent hours work :D

That reduces the overall time for a slot processing a vehicle from 0.0012ms to 0.0009ms. For big factories, thats a welcome change.

It drives me mad when I talk to some younger indie devs how little actual *work* they do. They are hardcore serious game devs, into game jams, and going to games conferences, and maintaining twitter, instagram and facebook pages about their game, and they often talk at shows, or attend talks, or tweet about talks, and watch tons of past talks, and play fellow indies games, and meet up at game dev meetups and try out the hot games and compare them to other games and…

…very rarely they sit in front of a keyboard and code a game.

This is a big problem if you actually want to make a living from games rather than just enjoy the ‘indie lifestyle’. FWIW, the indie lifestyle is easy. Dye your hair (or for extra points just part of your hair) bright blue, get an apple laptop, and cover it in stickers from games shows. Buy a GDC T-shirt (or for extra points, one from a smaller show), and spend at least three hours a day on social media. Bonus points for every 100 posts on gamedev subreddits talking about tech and marketing and design issues. Super bonus points for getting into heated twitter arguments about whether or not games are art or inclusive.

Oh obviously, you need to have a name and genre (maybe even a game jam concept?) for your game, so you have something to talk about.

This is all fine, and reminds me a LOT of the guy who persuaded me to take up learning the guitar when I was at college. He had been playing the guitar for about 3 years and was very cool. He showed me guitar tab one day and I bought a guitar the next month. Within 2 months I was a better guitarist than him. I ended up playing in 2 bands, and working briefly as a session guitarist, as well as teaching probably 100 people to play. AFAIK he never played a gig.

The difference between us was that I wanted to play the guitar and learn how to play well, whereas he wanted to be a guitar player. This was probably related to a desire to be cool, or get women to sleep with him, or both.

My advice is to know which you are. Are you an indie developer because you love the indie scene, and the people? Or are you an indie developer because you want to make games, ideally full-time? I also suggest that if its the latter, you need to lock down and optimize WHERE you do it.

Briefly, when I quit my job to go indie the first time, and my wife was at work full-time, I experimented with coding in coffee shops, because thats what they show people doing on TV and in magazines. It was crap. They are full of mothers with screaming kids, expensive (but average) coffee, no stability, no room, no peace, an environment 100% NOT conducive to C++.

this is not work

You MAY be one of the 1% of people who can program and design games and do real serious *deep work* while in a noisy environment you do not 100% control and surrounded by other people who often interrupt you. You really may be… but you probably are not. Almost everyone can concentrate better when things are quiet. Programming especially requires *deep* concentration, that is easily shattered and hard to rebuild.

In short, unless your environment is quiet, free from clutter, dedicated to one thing (work) and set up to convey that this is a WORK location, not a chill-out zone, then you are not going to get much done.

My tips?

Get a dedicated room in the house/flat if you can. If you cannot, then set dedicated work times, when you are not to be disturbed for any reason except a literal burning building…

Get an office chair, I recommend an aeron but cheaper alternatives are available. Set it up to be perfect for typing and reading, not slouching. You are *not* going to work all day on a beanbag or a sofa. You just are not.

Only people insecure about creativity think beanbags will save them

If its not quiet enough, get noise cancelling headphones and wear them.

Do not fill your desk and office with lots of fun toys and other distractions. Yes, you are making a fun game, but 95% of your time is work and implementation. Don’t confuse your subconscious. Are all those desk toys REALLY making you more creative or just distracting you from actual work.

Most of us are pretty shallow. We really care about what other people think of us, and when we are young, especially if we are single, we obsess about seeming cool. Work is not cool, work is for serious grown-ups who are boring. Thus we spend a lot of time trying to look cool, rather than be effective. If you saw me sat here right now, unless you noticed the framed prints of past games on my office walls, you would assume I’m working in fintech or IT. Its a very un-gamey environment, and it keeps me focused.

When you have shipped game #10 and sold game copy 1,000,000, feel free to fuck around. I *do* indeed have a child-size Tesla model S propped up in my office, and a toy car with toy robots on my desk, and am happy to be interrupted by cats and visitors all during the day. I can afford to be slack, but it was not always the case.

Set your environment up to be worklike, and you *will* get more done. We are simple animals and highly influenced by our surroundings. Stop trying to be cool.

Hey. I’m a games programmer who has been coding for 38 years (yes really) and making indie games for twenty. Thus… I’ve done a lot of it, and learned from a lot of mistakes. I still do not consider myself an expert (who does?) but I’ve stuck primarily with one language (C++) and have used a lot of optimization tools over the years, so I’m simply passing on what I know about making your game run faster in the year 2019.

Disclaimer: if you are making games in unity then… you are on your own. I have no idea what tools are available in unity (although talking to friends makes me suspect they are pretty…lacking). Frankly if you are relying on someone else’s engine code that you can’t change then you are probably fairly screwed anyway, performance wise. For everyone else…read on :D

First of all, its worth getting some perspective. The first modern games I tried to write were on the intel 386dx2 processor. The speed of my current chip (intel i7 6700 @ 3.40 GHZ) compared to that is…vast. I can’t even find stats for such an old chip, so zapping forwards a lot I guess I can compare my current chip to an intel Pentium 4 1500…

So frankly my current chip is about 80 times faster than one from 2009. And lets not kid ourselves that 2009 was the stone age. 2009 games looked PRETTY GOOD. So in the year 2019 (let alone the 2015 of my current chip), everything should be running silky smooth at 60 FPS (minimum) and with a UI that is as responsive as lightning right?

We all know this is not the case. Games still have performance problems. My point is that we should only be seeing performance problems in extreme cases now, when we are really pushing a machine to its limits to process incredible amounts of data, or render insane amounts of pixels, or applying insane effects to them. As an indie game developer, you are unlikely to be making Battlefield V style graphics, so your performance problems should be easy to solve right?

The biggest problem is that many developers just have NO IDEA what options there are out there to work out WHERE your performance problems are. I intend to show you some of them. (Click to enlarge any screens.)

Option #1 The visual studio profiler.

Obviously this is built in, so free with the IDE. I use a slightly older version of Visual C++ to the current one, and the profiler seems…ok, but a little basic. I get the impression its similar to the unity tools. It seems to want to tell you what to do, identifying specific functions that *it thinks* are the problem, rather than just giving you data and letting you investigate. Its very limited when it comes to actual visualization.

(default after-run screen of the profiler. Not much help tbh)

Now sure… this sort of thing is 100x more useful than no profiling at all (or horror of horrors: trying to measure your own code using hacked timers…), but frankly its pretty badly put together compared to dedicated 3rd party tools. Still…its built in I guess? I hardly bother using it.

(one of many uninspiring views in the visual c++ profiler)

Option#2 The visual studio concurrency visualizer.

In my version this is an ‘optional add-in’ which frankly is essential if you do multithreaded code (and if you don’t…omg why?) Its one of the best tools imaginable for visualizing where one thread is blocking another in a specific frame. It has truly excellent support for you adding in your own named sections, markers and events that let you build up really detailed and helpful pictures of why one thread is waiting for another. Given the ‘free’ price, its highly recommended, and probably the simplest tool for visualizing how your game is handling multi-threading.

It also has a baffling but I guess kinda cool view where you can see the relationship between actual threads and physical cores which shows them bouncing all over the place. Frankly I think this tool is made redundant by vtune, but like I say, its free and integrates nicely into visual studio. If you place custom code markers into it, it gets very helpful indeed.

Option#3 NVidia Nsight.

A visual debugging system thats free for nvidia card owners. This is great for GPU debugging, as it lets you freeze your game in real time, and then generate a ‘frame-scrubber’ view, where you can step through each individual draw call in a specific frame and watch every mesh get rendered, one at a time, and see the textures that were used, and what was changed on screen. This is *great fun*. if you ever have a bug where something is being drawn in the wrong order, this is how you spot it. This also allows you to spot those cases where you do far too many draw calls that could be easily batched. I’m doing too many draw calls here:

(nsight scrubber half way through a frame render showing current draw call texture atlas)

Nsight also has a system to let it run on a remote PC (which is cool), and has some nice little visual tools like the ability to visualize overdraw or to set all textures blank to see if its texture memory that is acting as a frame rate blocker. A real-time histogram shows you how many polys are being rendered by each draw call, which lets you spot parts of your games where you need more batching. Its very useful for games that are graphically complex, and where you need to visualize which items are taking up too many draw calls.

(nsight real time view showing GPU busy chart and draw call histogram)

Option #4 AQTime (by SmartBear) (approx $650)

This is commercial profiling software that I’ve used for years. it does an extremely good job of working out exactly what line of what function is slowing you down, which it does over the entire lifecycle of running the program. You can programatically (or manually) turn data collection on or off if you only want to capture a specific part of the run, but you have to do that at run time, not after the event, which is less than ideal if hunting for a specific slow frame.

AQtime has exceptionally good stability, and is very good at visually allowing you to ‘drill down’ into code and see where a bottleneck is. Its absolutely rubbish at concurrency analysis (although you can view the results of each thread individually, you cannot detect blocking). It gives some really cool charts, and will even let you switch to see the source code alongside profiling data, and even the assembly code if you really want to.

I’ve found that owning a copy of this is annoying (it has some serious low level service-based DRM), and its very much aimed at trying to get you to buy a new update every year, but if you can ignore that and deal with the company, and the price, its actually very good. I’ve used it for hundreds and hundreds of hours. Running aqtime WILL slow down your code a lot (especially in line-analysis mode) but its worth it to get the data. Its also quite good at analyzing memory usage.

Option#5 Intel VTune Amplifier.

Ok this one has a free trial that seems to never end so…I dunno. I don’t understand either. In the past I’ve paid the full £800 or so for this, and it was worth it.This is a full-on serious profiling tool that integrates into visual studio but can also be launched externally. Its a very low level beast, and produces gigabytes of profiling data. By default it limits its capture to 2GB of data, and thats *not a lot*. You will not leave it running for hours. Like many profilers, it has multiple modes and methods and rules. I tend to use its concurrency analysis mode which provides incredibly complex data like this:

Frankly the UI for it is as stable as a canoe carrying heavy industrial equipment, but its numerous crashes aside, its a seriously amazing bit of software. Treat it gently and it rewards you with incredible details, and also makes you strongly aware of how your code is just part of the story, with directx, drivers, and the O/S also having to do quite a bit of stuff while your game runs.

Like the concurrency visualizer, you can place your own markers in the code to label each bit of data and you can stack them a seemingly endless amount of times to give you amazing drill-down. For multi-threaded apps, this is a goldmine of information that just is *not* there with a normal, simple profiler.

I also find that its very good at letting you view the bottlenecks in code very well when you only want to select a single, very specific frame where stuff goes wrong. Honestly you could probably spend years just looking at the data of a single run of your game and still be learning new stuff.


Learning to use these tools takes months, and learning to apply the knowledge from them takes years. I’m only part way into the lifelong process of understanding what makes code slow, and how to fix that, but the important thing I want to get across is you need to know how to MEASURE this stuff.

Just running a function a thousand times with timegettime() at the start and end tells you NOTHING, other than that you really need to get a profiler. Increasingly code is running on a machine with multiple cores sat idle and without a really good way to analyze and visualize the inter-relationship between code running on different cores, you are basically trying to optimize with one hand tied behind your back and a patch over one eye.

There are some great free profilers, and even the commercial ones will pay for themselves. Unless your game already runs perfectly at 60FPS even on 5 year old hardware, you absolutely need to learn how to use one.

(if you found this post helpful, check out my games)

We just got sent new pics of the start of foundations for the second school we are building in Cameroon. the site is actually different to the one that was originally started, because all sorts of internal problems in the country meant that our funds had to be redirected to a different part of the country. (There is some political unrest in Cameroon).

The location is described as:

“Ecole Catholique St Barthelemy de Djeugo is located in Bahouan village, in Bamendjou Subdivision, Haut Plateau Division of the West Region of Cameroon. It is approximately 3km from the Centre of Bahouan on un-tarred but motor able roads.”

Which looks like its about here:

Anyway, the good news is that things are back on track, and we have pics to prove it :D

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Why I skipped GDC in 2019

March 23, 2019 | Filed under: business

So… the interwebs are awash with the happy high-fiving post-GDC backslapping and cheering and ‘omg this was what my GDC experience was like!’, so in typical cynical British fashion I thought I would put fingertips to keys for my alternative take.

Some background: I’ve been an indie dev for 20 years and coding for 38 years (not a typo). I’ve released over a dozen games, including Kudos, Gratuitous Space Battles, Democracy and production Line. I’ve also published some games. I work full time doing this as my job, and live in rural UK. I’m 49 (bloody hell!) and married.

I went a LONG time as an indie before finally giving in and going to GDC a few years ago. I remember my first experience being one of nervousness at not knowing ANYBODY, so I followed Jake Birkett of Grey Alien games, (who I’ve known for years) like a little lost and bewildered puppy hoping nobody would notice I was a total n00b to it all. The next year I went back, and the next year etc. This year was the first time I missed it since I started going.

As an alternative to GDC this year I did pop along to a way smaller London event, and spoke a bit about Unity and making your own engine, and met up with some UK indies I’ve known a long time to chat about stuff, which I’m really glad I did. Its a 2-3 hour trip from my house to London, so I stayed over in a local hotel. Drink was drunk, Lamb was eaten, jokes were made.

My decision to avoid GDC this year was very deliberate, but not a complete rejection of the whole concept. I may well return there next year, but my motivations for doing so will be almost entirely opposite to the motivations of people who attend their first GDC, so I thought it worth talking through how I feel about it. In that spirit, lets start by being negative (hey…British!) by listing what people do NOT tell you about GDC.

Negative Item #1: San Francisco. I actually got married in the US, and we stayed briefly in SF on our honeymoon. It was fab. The golden gate bridge! the trolleybusses! the huge pancakes! it was lovely. A great tourist town. Really cool. Almost 20 years later and… Oh…my…god. I’m not sure whats worse, the fact that there are *so many* homeless people or the fact that local residents have got used to totally blanking them. I’ve occasionally given cash to them, sometimes when I’m in a good mood, a fair bit of cash. One guy shouted ‘are you serious man?’ at me once. I guess they are used to being ignored, an inconvenience. an embarrassment. As a visitor, its totally shocking. And many of them seem to have untreated mental health issues.

I know all big cities have a problem with homelessness, but having just got back from London I know its TEN times worse, (at least to the casual visitor) in SF. Bad as the homelessness is, its not the only problem. There are parts of SF that you are very clearly warned DO NOT GO THERE. The really scary bit? they are maybe *one* street away from five star hotels. Its like some dystopian sci-fi future.

In a very small way, I’m not going this year to protest that San Fran will not deal with its problems. This is not a poor city. And frankly, I don’t go abroad much. I don’t want to spend half my time worrying about being stabbed, or getting depressed about homelessness. Other really nice US cities are available. Also, WTF is wrong with Las Vegas? come on guys… Vegas!

Negative item #2: Money. Luckily, the gods of market forces have been good to me (also I work like a fucking maniac and have 20 years indie experience and no kids), so my company does very well. I admit it, I fly business class when I visit the show. I can afford to buy a complete GDC show pass if I wanted to ( I do not). The cost of that pass?


This is for a conference pass. Not a new laptop, or a new laptop + apple iphone X plus 3 course meal. Its just a pass that lets you actually go to everything at the show. They have to be absolutely kidding right? By the way, that just gets you into the show. Your food & drinks are extra, your hotel extra, your flights extra, your transfers from hotel, extra. Is this serious? and that brings me onto my next item:

Negative item#3: AFAIK hardly anyone is getting paid. The speakers? they get a free pass (OMG at $2,499 value!!!), but fuck-all else. You think they get free flights too? free hotel rooms? nope. Nothing, at least not the last time I checked. The CONTENT at the show (the talks) are provided by volunteers. At least everyone else got paid. But no, most of the ‘helpers’ at the show are volunteers too, they aren’t getting paid either.

People want to start a discussion of unionization in game dev? FFS lets start here. You give a talk at a show where the tickets are two thousand dollars, you need to get PAID for your time. I’ve spoken at GDC twice (one indie rant, one talk with 3 or 4 other devs). I’m never doing it again. My time IS money, especially if I have to spend my own money to get there and back. FWIW, other shows sometimes DO pay, and sometimes even for flights & hotels.

The thing is, you may consider all this to be worth it if the actual content of the show really improves your business right? I totally agree with you but that means item 4:

Negative item#4: The overwhelming majority of the talks are of zero use to you. This is not a dig at the speakers, many of whom are excellent and put a lot of (unpaid) work into them (including the work done by everyone who ‘submits’ a talk, but gets rejected). The fact is… game dev is a vast topic and a lot of platforms, genres and technologies are in play. The vast majority of it is NOT helpful to you. For example, are you a mobile dev using java and opengl to make an MMO? Awesome, but me giving a talk on optimising C++ and directx for PC strategy games is probably fucking useless for you.

Unless you are bizdev + marketing + finance + coder (all languages) + artist + animator + designer… the overwhelming majority of talks are not in your area. And guess what… multiple talks happen at once, so the chances are you will miss some of the ones you wanted to go to anyway. And oh… sometimes there isn’t enough room, so you will not get to attend a talk anyway.

Of course that applies to any big show, but that doesn’t mean its not a factor. Also applicable to every other big show is…

Negative item#5: You may well get ill. Or suffer in other ways. I used to laugh at people who used hand sanitizer and fistbumping. What feeble office-jockeys are they? whats the worst that can happen? Then it happened to me. I was ill after the show. very ill. Horribly ill. Embarrassingly ill. Get me drunk and ask for details one day. Its actually quite funny, but at the time: No. It was BAD. You are shaking hands with hot sweaty geeks from all over the planet. You *will* get ill at some point, and lose productivity.

Also, even if you don’t get ill, if you are a shy introvert coder like me, GDC is NOT DESIGNED FOR YOU. There are a lot of very confident, loud, assertive, extroverted, friendly, upbeat Americans who will talk extremely loudly in very loud bars absolutely packed with people who all seem to already know each other. You think you will enjoy trying to close a publishing deal over cocktails in a loud dark nightclub where people are yelling across you? You will not enjoy that. Nobody does, and yet its the same, every year.

So given all this… why the fuck did I ever go back?

The Good Stuff. GDC, like any big game show allows you to meet probably at least a hundred people who *do what you do*, and are as keen to talk about it as you are. You will hear a lot of business insider stuff. You will be exposed to lots of ideas, and get insight into the way the industry is heading. We are all still apes in T shirts, so physically meeting and sharing coffee/beer with someone means you are WAY more likely to work with them in the future. Networking is a REAL thing, and GDC is the heart of games industry networking. Despite everything I’ve typed here, you should all go to it once (if you can afford it).

And I admit, that even as I type this extended long-form rant, I do regret the fact that so many people I’ve met before at GDC, like Ron, Tommy, Brad, Chet, Ichiro, John & so many others… I’m just not going to see this year and thats kinda sad. TBH, I go there more for the meals and the drinks and the banter and jokes than any actual *biz* need, but I miss all you people, and wish we could hang out.

Oh and BTW I missed out my ‘kinda preachy’ (*but if you know me well, you will know its my primary reason*) argument for NOT going to GDC. I’m an environmentalist, and if you are too, you either need to not keep jumping on long distance airplanes that pump out serious CO2, or you need to offset the fuck out of it when you do go. I *did* consider flying & offsetting but decided against it.

Anyway… hope this isn’t too depressing. Its my honest take. Be aware of survivor bias, and peoples desire to always appear happy on social media. People are not going to tweet ‘Went to GDC, was expensive and crowded and probably a waste of time’. Nobody does that, but some people likely did think it. Of course, YMMV :D.